Feeds

Flippin' Equus! Unfeasibly old horse bone DNA triumph

Gee-gee ancestor appeared 4 million years ago

Secure remote control for conventional and virtual desktops

Biologists have sequenced the oldest full genome from a horse bone, in the process discovering that the ancient ancestor of the modern horse first appeared four million years ago, nearly twice as early as previously thought. What has the science world most excited, though, is the fact that they were even able to work on such old genetic material.

Herd of horses in Nevada

“We have beaten the time barrier,” Orlando told Nature, where the study was published, noting that the oldest DNA sequenced before this came from a polar bear between 110,000 and 130,000 years old. “All of a sudden, you have access to many more extinct species than you could have ever dreamed of sequencing before.”

Evolutionary biologists led by Ludovic Orlando and Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen extracted the DNA from the foot bone of a horse more than half a million years old, found in the permafrost of the Canadian Arctic.

The ancient equine lived between 780,000 and 560,000 years ago. The researchers compared its sequence with that of a 43,000-year-old specimen and those of five modern domestic horse breeds, a wild Przewalski's horse and a donkey and figured out that the first example of the modern Equus genus branched off from other animal lineages around four million years ago.

The frozen ground in the Arctic was partly responsible for the team's success, as it helped to preserve the DNA somewhat. But the boffins also combined a technique called true single DNA molecule sequencing with routine next-generation sequencing to get the genome. The former method uses a machine that directly reads the DNA without having to amplify it in a sequencing machine - a process that can lose some of the sequences, forcing scientists to start over, which is not an option with small samples.

The genome sequencing for the genus Equus, which includes horses, zebras and donkeys, also proved that the Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), which was brought back from near-extinction in Mongolia by captive-breeding programmes, is the last "wild" horse left. ®

Beginner's guide to SSL certificates

More from The Register

next story
MEN: For pity's sake SLEEP with LOTS of WOMEN - and avoid Prostate Cancer
And, um, don't sleep with other men. If that's what worries you
Voyager 1 now EIGHTEEN LIGHT HOURS from home
Almost 20 BEEELION kilometres from Sol
HUGE SHARK as big as a WWII SUBMARINE died out, allowing whales to exist
Who'd win a fight: Megalodon or a German battleship?
Jim Beam me up, Scotty! WHISKY from SPAAACE returns to Earth
They're insured for $1m, before you thirsty folks make plans
ROGUE SAIL BOAT blocks SPACE STATION PODULE blastoff
Er, we think our ISS launch beats your fishing expedition
Comet Siding Spring revealed as flying molehill
Hiding from this space pimple isn't going to do humanity's reputation any good
BAE points electromagnetic projectile at US Army
Railguns for 'Future fighting vehicle'
LONG ARM of the SAUR: Brachially gifted dino bone conundrum solved
Deinocheirus mirificus was a bit of a knuckle dragger
prev story

Whitepapers

Cloud and hybrid-cloud data protection for VMware
Learn how quick and easy it is to configure backups and perform restores for VMware environments.
Forging a new future with identity relationship management
Learn about ForgeRock's next generation IRM platform and how it is designed to empower CEOS's and enterprises to engage with consumers.
Reg Reader Research: SaaS based Email and Office Productivity Tools
Read this Reg reader report which provides advice and guidance for SMBs towards the use of SaaS based email and Office productivity tools.
Saudi Petroleum chooses Tegile storage solution
A storage solution that addresses company growth and performance for business-critical applications of caseware archive and search along with other key operational systems.
How to simplify SSL certificate management
Simple steps to take control of SSL certificates across the enterprise, and recommendations centralizing certificate management throughout their lifecycle.