Feeds

Clearwire and China Mobile link up for 4G time-div trials

I don't want to pair up, I want to have one after another

Designing a Defense for Mobile Applications

As part of the Global TD-LTE Initiative US-based Clearwire and China Mobile are joining forces to test time-divisioned networks in both countries, though we'll likely see the technology in the UK too.

That's because Ofcom, the UK regulator, has earmarked 50MHz of spectrum for the TD variant of 4G telephony, despite the fact that the regulator is supposed to be technology neutral. TD-LTE has a solid technical specification but it still needs lots of interoperability testing if it's going to achieve the economies of scale accorded to its frequency-divisioned contemporary.

When cellular telephony was designed it made sense for the sending and receiving channels to be on separate frequencies, that way the users don't have to shout "over" at the end of every exchange and can even interrupt each other's diatribes with their own interjections.

But giving every user a separate frequency is overly generous, so GSM divides up the band into time slots and expects each user to share a pair of frequencies with seven others nearby. Each user gets an equal share, one time slot per voice call, though a GPRS handset may make use of empty slots for data communications.

Even with CDMA (Code Divisioned Multiple Access) allowing users to share the same frequency at the same time (the base station differentiating between signals with an identifying code) users still transmit on one frequency, and receive on another, ensuring the two don't interfere with each other and keeping things simple.

But using frequency division does require the network operator to own two separate bands, so the regulators regularly licence spectrum in paired blocks suited to frequency divisioning and even refer to companies as owning, for example, 2x25MHz rather than just 50MHz of bandwidth.

WiMAX was the notable exception to the use of frequency-divisioned standards, instead requiring both ends to switch from receive to transmit in perfect harmony. That allows a single frequency so be used for a duplex connection, as well as providing greater flexibility for asynchronous connections (as the time slots for send and receive don't have to be the same size).

WiMAX is all but dead now, but the bands it was using have no convenient pair, which is why Clearwire (who previously deployed WiMAX around the USA) is so keen to explore TD-LTE.

In the UK our 4G auctions are almost entirely paired, but there's a 50MHz chunk at 2.67GHz which lacks a pair and is widely expected to be used for TD-LTE, though the regulator remains officially neutral about technology choices and the licences won't specify what the airwaves are to be filled with.

Who will deploy TD-LTE in the UK we don’t know: the existing operators are more likely to prefer the frequency divisioning they're familiar with, but if China Mobile and Clearwire can demonstrate the technical capabilities of the TD-LTE standard it might increase interest in technology, and the bands needed to support it. ®

HP ProLiant Gen8: Integrated lifecycle automation

More from The Register

next story
Auntie remains MYSTIFIED by that weekend BBC iPlayer and website outage
Still doing 'forensics' on the caching layer – Beeb digi wonk
Apple orders huge MOUNTAIN of 80 MILLION 'Air' iPhone 6s
Bigger, harder trouser bulges foretold for fanbois
Bring back error correction, say Danish 'net boffins
We don't need no steenkin' TCP/IP retransmission and the congestion it causes
GoTenna: How does this 'magic' work?
An ideal product if you believe the Earth is flat
Samsung Z Tizen OS mobe is post-phoned – this time for good?
Russian launch for Sammy's non-droid knocked back
Telstra to KILL 2G network by end of 2016
GSM now stands for Grave-Seeking-Mobile network
Seeking LTE expert to insert small cells into BT customers' places
Is this the first step to a FON-a-like 4G network?
Yorkshire cops fail to grasp principle behind BT Fon Wi-Fi network
'Prevent people that are passing by to hook up to your network', pleads plod
prev story

Whitepapers

Implementing global e-invoicing with guaranteed legal certainty
Explaining the role local tax compliance plays in successful supply chain management and e-business and how leading global brands are addressing this.
Consolidation: The Foundation for IT Business Transformation
In this whitepaper learn how effective consolidation of IT and business resources can enable multiple, meaningful business benefits.
Application security programs and practises
Follow a few strategies and your organization can gain the full benefits of open source and the cloud without compromising the security of your applications.
How modern custom applications can spur business growth
Learn how to create, deploy and manage custom applications without consuming or expanding the need for scarce, expensive IT resources.
Securing Web Applications Made Simple and Scalable
Learn how automated security testing can provide a simple and scalable way to protect your web applications.