Feeds

Research spies holes in Fortune 1000 wireless nets

Frequency hopping. It's not a security protocol

High performance access to file storage

Overlooked design weaknesses in a widely used type of wireless network are seriously jeopardizing the network security of the retailers and manufacturers that rely on them, a security expert has determined.

So-called FHSS, or frequency-hopping spread spectrum, networks are an early form of the 802.11 wireless data standard. Although transmission speeds, at about 2 Mbps, lag far behind more recent 802.11 technologies, they remain widely used by many Fortune 1000 companies, particularly those with large warehouses or factory floors.

As their name suggests, FHSS networks transmit radio signals by changing their frequency channel extremely rapidly - about once every 400 milliseconds. For more than a decade, the presumption even among many security professionals has been that it's impossible for outsiders to eavesdrop on the networks without spending tens of thousands of dollars on spectrum analyzers, oscilloscopes, and other sophisticated equipment.

Now, Rob Havelt, Practice Manager for Penetration Testing at security firm Trustwave, has devised a low-cost means to crack those networks using off-the-shelf hardware and custom-built software that cracks frequency-hopping algorithms. That leaves corporate networks at companies that use FHSS wide open because there's usually nothing separating one from the other.

"These networks present a large, gaping hole into a lot of organizations because they're not architected with security in mind," said Havelt, who plans to present his findings at the Black Hat security conference in Amsterdam. Companies "have them deployed and they're just basically waiting for somebody to get in that way."

FHSS networks carry signals on one of 79 channels in a sequence that's hard for outsiders to predict. Havelt's method employs a cheap radio that uses custom-built software based on the GNU Radio Project to locate a FHSS network's beacon frame. In turn, the beacon frame gives out the network's SSID, or service set identifier, and hop pattern.

Finding the SSID and hop pattern takes only a few seconds of monitoring with the software-based radio. From there, an intruder need only use a laptop armed with a FHSS-compliant network interface card to join the network. Although some FHSS networks use encryption to prevent unauthorized access, the protection is based on 40-bit WEP, or wired equivalent privacy, which is easily cracked.

"Once you have the correct SSID, the client is going to send association requests," Havel told The Register. After connecting, attackers generally have unfettered access to the organization's network.

In some respects, FHSS networks are the wireless equivalent of mainframe computers. With entire fleets of barcode scanners that rely on them, and the high cost of replacing them with more modern equipment, many organizations have chosen to hold on to the older gear despite their technical inferiority.

Havelt said it's not uncommon for penetration testers and other security consultants to tell their clients that FHSS networks are generally safe from intruders. His demonstration in two weeks is designed, once and for all, to put that misconception to rest.

"Frequency hopping is definitely not a security protocol or security mechanism, and it can't be relied upon as a security mechanism," he said. "To do so is basic security through obscurity." ®

High performance access to file storage

More from The Register

next story
Parent gabfest Mumsnet hit by SSL bug: My heart bleeds, grins hacker
Natter-board tells middle-class Britain to purée its passwords
Samsung Galaxy S5 fingerprint scanner hacked in just 4 DAYS
Sammy's newbie cooked slower than iPhone, also costs more to build
Obama allows NSA to exploit 0-days: report
If the spooks say they need it, they get it
Web data BLEEDOUT: Users to feel the pain as Heartbleed bug revealed
Vendors and ISPs have work to do updating firmware - if it's possible to fix this
Snowden-inspired crypto-email service Lavaboom launches
German service pays tribute to Lavabit
One year on: diplomatic fail as Chinese APT gangs get back to work
Mandiant says past 12 months shows Beijing won't call off its hackers
Call of Duty 'fragged using OpenSSL's Heartbleed exploit'
So it begins ... or maybe not, says one analyst
NSA denies it knew about and USED Heartbleed encryption flaw for TWO YEARS
Agency forgets it exists to protect communications, not just spy on them
prev story

Whitepapers

Securing web applications made simple and scalable
In this whitepaper learn how automated security testing can provide a simple and scalable way to protect your web applications.
Five 3D headsets to be won!
We were so impressed by the Durovis Dive headset we’ve asked the company to give some away to Reg readers.
HP ArcSight ESM solution helps Finansbank
Based on their experience using HP ArcSight Enterprise Security Manager for IT security operations, Finansbank moved to HP ArcSight ESM for fraud management.
The benefits of software based PBX
Why you should break free from your proprietary PBX and how to leverage your existing server hardware.
Mobile application security study
Download this report to see the alarming realities regarding the sheer number of applications vulnerable to attack, as well as the most common and easily addressable vulnerability errors.