Feeds

The transistor turns 60

Birthday on Sunday

  • alert
  • submit to reddit

Secure remote control for conventional and virtual desktops

Forgotten Tech The transistor, the ubiquitous building block of all electronic circuits, will be 60 years old on Sunday. The device is jointly credited to William Shockley (1910-1989), John Bardeen (1908-1991) and Walter Brattain (1902-1987), and it was Bardeen and Brattain who made the first working point-contact transistor on 16 December 1947.

The name wasn't coined until the following year. Bell Labs employee John R Pierce (1910-2002) thought up the moniker, and in May 1948 his colleagues, who'd been presented with a list of suggestions, opted for his.

"This is an abbreviated combination of the words 'transconductance' or 'transfer', and 'varistor'," Bell Labs' voting paper put it at the time.

Replica of the first transistor

Bardeen and Brattain's transistor, as replicated in 1997

The team's work goes back to the late-1930s, but the real work didn't begin until after the end of World War II. Shockley proposed a field-effect transistor design that would be made out of thin slices of different semiconductors, including silicon, sandwiched together. Unfortunately, he wasn't able to get this design to work the way his maths anticipated, and so Bardeen and Brattain chose to investigate the simpler, surface-effect point-contact design.

The two men produced the first point-contact transistor by attaching two gold-foil point contacts to a piece of germanium, itself mounted on a metal base. The gold sheets were kept apart with a wedge of plastic. Originally a single sheet of gold, the very closely-sited contacts were made by slicing the sheet at the apex of the triangle.

This time it worked, and Bardeen and Brattain were able to extend their apparatus with circuitry able to amplify sound signals, much to the delight of their Bell Labs bosses.

The company would go on to put the point-contact transistor into limited production, announcing the device to the public on 1 July 1948. By then, Shockley had already developed an alternative design and the point-contact device's successor: the bipolar junction transistor. His invention, built and tested in January 1948, made for a more compact design and proved, in time, to be easier to manufacture than the bulky point-contact transistor.

It went on to become the basis for all the transistors used in electronics products right up until the broad use of Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology in the late 1960s following the discovery of the MOS by Bell Labs' John Atalla and Dawon Kahng in 1959, though the patent wasn't applied for until 31 May 1960 - and granted on 27 August 1963.

Choosing a cloud hosting partner with confidence

More from The Register

next story
4K-ing excellent TV is on its way ... in its own sweet time, natch
For decades Hollywood actually binned its 4K files. Doh!
Oi, Tim Cook. Apple Watch. I DARE you to tell me, IN PERSON, that it's secure
State attorney demands Apple CEO bows the knee to him
Apple's big bang: iPhone 6, ANOTHER iPhone 6 Plus and WATCH OUT
Let's >sigh< see what Cupertino has been up to for the past year
Phones 4u website DIES as wounded mobe retailer struggles to stay above water
Founder blames 'ruthless network partners' for implosion
Get your Indian Landfill Android One handsets - they're only SIXTY QUID
Cheap and deafening mobes for the subcontinental masses
Apple's SNEAKY plan: COPY ANDROID. Hello iPhone 6, Watch
Sizes, prices and all – but not for the wrist-o-puter
A SCORCHIO fatboy SSD: Samsung SSD850 PRO 3D V-NAND
4Gb/s speeds on a consumer drive, anyone?
prev story

Whitepapers

Providing a secure and efficient Helpdesk
A single remote control platform for user support is be key to providing an efficient helpdesk. Retain full control over the way in which screen and keystroke data is transmitted.
WIN a very cool portable ZX Spectrum
Win a one-off portable Spectrum built by legendary hardware hacker Ben Heck
Storage capacity and performance optimization at Mizuno USA
Mizuno USA turn to Tegile storage technology to solve both their SAN and backup issues.
High Performance for All
While HPC is not new, it has traditionally been seen as a specialist area – is it now geared up to meet more mainstream requirements?
Security and trust: The backbone of doing business over the internet
Explores the current state of website security and the contributions Symantec is making to help organizations protect critical data and build trust with customers.