Feeds

US law on age proof in explicit images is ruled unconstitutional

Record keeping duties removed from pornographers

High performance access to file storage

A law requiring publishers of sexually explicit content to document and record the age of participants in material has been ruled unconstitutional by a US court. Experts had warned that the law could cause problems for photo-sharing websites.

The US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit has said that the law broke the US Constitution's first amendment right to free speech. It said that the law breached the doctrine of overbreadth, which means that the law could be applied to silence constitutionally protected speech.

The law was passed in 1988 and amended twice afterwards to attempt to prevent the production and dissemination of sexually explicit images of child abuse. It required the producers of sexually explicit material to keep extensive records of the participants in photographs or videos.

The law defined producers broadly enough, though, to include people who re-published photographs without taking any part in their production, editing or selection. This led some to fear that the law would catch photo-sharing sites such as Flickr.

The Court of Appeals found that the law made no distinction between photographs that were taken for a commercial purpose and those that were not.

"The statute by its plain terms makes no exception for photographs taken without a commercial purpose, for photographs intended to never be transferred, or for photographs taken with any other motivation," said Judge Kennedy's ruling for the Court. "If the photograph depicts actual sexually explicit conduct, a record must be kept by the person creating the image. Additionally, the disclosure statement regarding where the records are kept must be affixed to every image created, regardless of whether a person plans on selling or otherwise transferring the image."

"This reach is extremely broad, and the most commonsense limitation, for which the statute and regulations provide some support, would be to limit the statute’s reach to photographs taken for a commercial purpose, that is, photographs taken for the purpose of sale," said Kennedy.

The case was brought by Connection Magazine, a publication for swingers, as well as by its publisher Rondee Kamins and two anonymous individuals who want to publish sexually explicit photographs in the magazine.

The US Constitution has fewer protections for conduct than it does for speech, and the US Attorney General argued in the case that its actions were regulating the conduct of child abuse image production.

The Court found the argument "unpersuasive".

"While the government is indeed aiming at conduct, child abuse, it is regulating protected speech, sexually explicit images of adults, to get at that conduct," said Kennedy. "Images, including photographs, are protected by the First Amendment as speech as much as words in books and oral utterances."

The Court found that the law could have 'chilling effects' on protected speech because it was so broadly defined. "The first chilling effect stems from the breadth of the statute...there are likely many violations occurring because people without commercial motivations may not realize that the recordkeeping requirements apply to their speech.

This leads to chilling because it means that enforcers can seek out and silence particularly disliked people or speech," said Kennedy.

Kennedy said that the Court understood that preventing the trade in images of child abuse was important but that was not a justification for any law the government chose to enact in the name of that prevention.

"We do not belittle the despicability of child pornography, and we appreciate the difficulties faced by the government," said Kennedy. "There are a myriad of limitations available, however, that would reduce the breadth of the recordkeeping requirements and would more narrowly focus on the government’s interest and therefore remove some of the protected speech from the statute’s coverage."

Three judges made the ruling and one, Judge McKeague, disagreed with the verdict of the other two, saying that the original Court decision in favour of the government was correct.

The Court ordered the original Court, the US District Court for the Northern District of Ohio, to grant a summary judgment against the government, overturning the law.

See: The ruling (27-page / 118KB PDF)

High performance access to file storage

More from The Register

next story
Android engineer: We DIDN'T copy Apple OR follow Samsung's orders
Veep testifies for Samsung during Apple patent trial
MtGox chief Karpelès refuses to come to US for g-men's grilling
Bitcoin baron says he needs another lawyer for FinCEN chat
Did a date calculation bug just cost hard-up Co-op Bank £110m?
And just when Brit banking org needs £400m to stay afloat
One year on: diplomatic fail as Chinese APT gangs get back to work
Mandiant says past 12 months shows Beijing won't call off its hackers
EFF: Feds plan to put 52 MILLION FACES into recognition database
System would identify faces as part of biometrics collection
Big Content goes after Kim Dotcom
Six studios sling sueballs at dead download destination
Ex-Tony Blair adviser is new top boss at UK spy-hive GCHQ
Robert Hannigan to replace Sir Iain Lobban in the autumn
Alphadex fires back at British Gas with overcharging allegation
Brit colo outfit says it paid for 347KVA, has been charged for 1940KVA
Jack the RIPA: Blighty cops ignore law, retain innocents' comms data
Prime minister: Nothing to see here, go about your business
Don't let no-hire pact suit witnesses call Steve Jobs a bullyboy, plead Apple and Google
'Irrelevant' character evidence should be excluded – lawyers
prev story

Whitepapers

Securing web applications made simple and scalable
In this whitepaper learn how automated security testing can provide a simple and scalable way to protect your web applications.
Five 3D headsets to be won!
We were so impressed by the Durovis Dive headset we’ve asked the company to give some away to Reg readers.
HP ArcSight ESM solution helps Finansbank
Based on their experience using HP ArcSight Enterprise Security Manager for IT security operations, Finansbank moved to HP ArcSight ESM for fraud management.
The benefits of software based PBX
Why you should break free from your proprietary PBX and how to leverage your existing server hardware.
Mobile application security study
Download this report to see the alarming realities regarding the sheer number of applications vulnerable to attack, as well as the most common and easily addressable vulnerability errors.