The 14-bit codes are cleverly crafted to ensure any two binary ones in the code is separated by 2-10 binary zeros. Three further bits are used to separate the 14-bit codes on the disc. While this approach may be less efficient from a storage space perspective - 17 pits on the disc's data surface are used to encode half that number of bits - it makes it much easier for the optical head to read the data correctly.
CD encoding also employs Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Coding (CIRC), which adds an extra, parity byte for every three bytes of data. The upshot: the player's electronics can easily and efficiently 'guess' what data masked by errors should have been, eliminating clicks and pops.
Sony's CDP-101: introducing...
More advanced versions of this technique would later be used in DVD and Sony's Super Audio CD (SACD) format.
The SACD has yet to win the broad appeal enjoyed by the CD, which proved a major driver for the music industry as consumers dashed to replace old or scratched vinyl LPs and hissy cassettes with shiny new compact discs. By the late 1990s, however, in part due to the growing popularity of computer games, and first sell-through videotapes and later DVDs, but also the advent of both the MP3 music format and peer-to-peer file sharing networks, CD sales began their inevitable decline.
...the world's first CD player
CD remains the dominant format for legitimately purchased recorded music - some 200bn have been sold in the past 25 years, Philips reckons - but it's lead is being eaten into by downloads. Fans are finding they'd rather buy individual tracks than albums of songs. This week, the UK recording industry's Annual Survey forecast that Apple's iTunes store will outsell other music suppliers within two years - on other words, downloads will have become more popular than the CD.
Philips' CD100: VHS styling
The Compact Disc may not strictly speaking be a forgotten technology, but at that rate it soon will be.
More Forgotten Tech...
• 15 years ago: the first mass-produced GSM phone
• From 1981: the World's first UMPC
• The IBM ThinkPad: 15 years old today
• Apple's first handheld: the Newton MessagePad
• Atari's Portfolio: the world's first palmtop
• 'Timna' - Intel's first system-on-a-chip
• BeOS: the Mac OS X might-have-been
• Sony's first Mylo
I Know It's A Bit Late But.........
cd 25 years old being phased out
vinyl donkeys years old still around and has a huge following
vinyl has won
also nothing beats shaped/picture/transparent/all 3 disks
Best amps made
Some of the best transistor amplifiers you will find are the ones made in the days when they had to compete with valves. Come to think of it, even the valve amps made in those days were better, because they were competing with transistors. (My old valve amp -- ECC83 and two ECL82s per channel in class AB1, feedback via secondary of output transformer -- really doesn't like MP3s at all. I thought it was just a very bad case of tube fatigue, but a CD sounded fine through it.)
I guess it's true; when you've got nothing to prove anymore, you don't try as hard.
I made some rips from analogue cassettes and LPs, but they were always marred by noise. I eventually cured this by getting a USB mixer (i.e. with integral sound card); it has its own power supply, and so is not sharing with the computer. There's no proper RIAA equalisation, but there are separate treble, middle and bass controls for each channel and I found a reasonable setting by trial and error.
The LP record, imperfect as it is, needs to be viewed in context as part of the entire system for delivering sound from the performer to the listener. The distortions introduced by the recording and playback of vinyl records are expected by the listener, and "vinyl noise" is an integral part of the listening experience. This is not something you can expect kids who've never grown up with it to understand.
@Cliff: Piano rolls do still exist, only they're called Midi files nowadays.
@Vulpes Vulpes: You're dead right; CD boxes are no good for skinning up on. Perhaps that explains why today's youth are so into bongs.
Cheap CD players are still naff
Because of the Nyquist filter. You can't just pipe the output of the D-to-A converter to your amplifier, you need to filter off the sampling artifacts, and remove the ultrasonic content which can cause some amps to give you high-frequency intermodulation distortion. CD players have had various schemes for doing this ("1-bit converter", "n-times-oversampling" "DSP" etc.,etc) but cheaper or more poorly designed ones don't perform this well. Also, the nature of the filters can give you a high-end frequency response that isn't flat, and do nasty things to the phase as well.
The upshot of this is the well-known "listener fatigue" effect of listening to some CD players. What you are experiencing is the high-frequency distortions, which you can't consciously identify, giving a subtle jangly effect to vocals, cymbals and other "tizzy" stuff.
The effect is made more horrible by the tendency for modern music CD's to have gallons of treble boost applied, to make the music stand out on small radios and in clubs. Yuk.