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We used to be afraid of comets, now it's their turn

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Just before seven o'clock on Monday morning next week, a 360kg lump of copper will smash into comet Tempel-1, in a collision that should answer many of the questions scientists have about the precise nature of comets.

Some of the first images of the collision will be captured by the UK-operated optical telescopes on Hawaii: UK school kids will be involved in the initial processing and analysis of these images, along with some of their counterparts on the Hawaiian islands.

NASA will be gathering data using telescopes on the islands as well, but their interest is in the spectroscopy. Although this is ultimately more interesting for scientists, Roche argues that to grab the public's interest, visual snaps are needed.

Deep Impact will send pictures back to Earth as well, but the fly-by section of the craft will have to shut down for an hour or so, just 800 seconds after impact, as it will be passing so close to the comet that its instruments will be at risk from the dust and gas.

"This is why the ground-based observation is going to be so important," Roche says. "We are hoping to get the before, during, and after pictures so we can put together an animation of the collision event."

Eager comet watchers should not get too excited, however. The early pictures are not likely to reveal much scientific data. "It looks like a fuzzy blob at the moment. Once deep impact hits, it will be a bigger fuzzy blob," Roche concedes.

However, UK scientists will be involved in spectroscopic analysis from two hours after the impact when the telescopes in Australia come online. At this point, the interesting question is what happens to the water vapour that will be released by the impact.

After another 13 hours, telescopes in La Palma will be in darkness, and will join the analysis of the impact's aftermath. They will watch the material expelled from the comet get blown into the comet's tail. The tail effectivey becomes a windsock for measuring the speed of the solar wind.

After two-and-a-half days, the Earth will be in a position to see the same area of space again. Taking new observations should give an indication of the behaviour of the solar wind in that particular area of the solar system.

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